"Overall Technical Considerations for SDI Design and Development", The University of Melbourne, October 2009.
The initiative of an SDI is to promote the needs of sharing the spatial data surrounded by the different level of hierarchy which currently is leveled within global, regional, national, state and local. In principles, by having the entire spatial data shared under one roof, and on a reachable environment, an affiliation of a spatial enabled society is created and a wide-range of information is enabled for the stakeholder’s access thus creating a great environment and working space for first-class outcomes of improved decision area.
Having SDI on the move is not as easy as it sees; challenge may be coming from stakeholders that have a privacy issue; non-standard supply of the data and technology; and requires a mutual understanding between stakeholders and society on how important it is in creating an entities with good SDI initiatives and allowing effectives result of accessing precise and reliable spatial data.
In this paper, we reviewed various options and fundamental of spatial data implementation includes the INSPIRE model case study on the technical phase. The technical components have also been defined with various formats and standards in practices and establishes by OGC. This report also reviewed, discussed and assessed different aspects of technical components in the development of SDI and their issues in the implementation. We also discovered the difficulties and how these issues can have impacts on an organization’s motivations towards the realizations of SDI initiatives.
One of the key successful criteria of an SDI is access and interaction from various sources. This is to ensure the spatial data is consistent and heterogeneity towards delivery of a diverse spatial services with different needs of different stakeholders. To meet this aims, facilitation of integration of data within multi-sources is desirable, so that the spatial data can be communicated across the needs of information.
It is vital that to overcome many technical issues, an understanding for a collaboration of a single frameworks for each technical and non-technical components can be established and integrate as a platform and able to serve the environment of multi-sources spatial data.
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The effect of reliable heading updates on urban wayfinding Project for Master Degree of Applied Science
The effect of reliable heading updates on urban wayfinding
Project for Master Degree of Applied Science (Geographic Information Systems) at The University of Melbourne
by Wilfred Waters, 2010
AbstractPrior research about wayfinding has found that females tend to employ a single strategy based on landmarks, where males are more versatile, using landmarks and global orientation information such as cardinal directions (Lawton, 2010). It was proposed that this strategy difference occurs due to males’ better sense of direction, which would deliver more trustworthy indications of current heading. Since males’ greater versatility has often been linked with better navigation performance (for example Sandstrom, Kaufman, & Huettel, 1998; Saucier et al., 2002) this study sought to contribute to the growing body of literature on methods of training to increase sense of direction (such as Hund and Minarik, 2006; Hund & Nazarczuk, 2009). An experimental procedure was used to investigate the possibility that the provision of reliable cardinal direction heading updates to participants would lead to a dual strategy for orientation in those that usually use a single strategy based on landmarks. This was done in an urban navigation context, with the main dependent variable being level of recall for route structure. Whilst the present study, using the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction Scale, revealed that males had a higher self-reported sense of direction, no sex differences in performance were found on the route structure recall tasks. This was interpreted as being an artifact of the sedentary nature of the procedure, which involved watching a video of someone else navigating using a car. Another factor of this stimulus was that the strategies mentioned above may not have been required since the route video may not have been considered by participants to be a disorientation threat. The study is therefore viewed as an ideal candidate for replication by future investigators, who may wish to compare performance in a real, or virtual, environment where participants are required to deploy orientation strategies.
KEYWORDS: wayfinding strategies, sense of direction, cardinal directions, navigation, sex differences
According to the Gippsland Coastal Board final report, 2009 “Little doubt now remains that global climates are changing. It is, however; important to distinguish between ‘natural’ variability in weather patterns caused by phenomena such as El Nino (Southern Oscillation), which causes extended periods of below average rainfall in south eastern
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was established in 1988 by the United Nations' Environment Program and the World Meteorological Organization. It is responsible for providing the international community with authoritative advice on scientific, technical and economic issues relating to climate change.
The aim of this research is to visually illustrate the uncertainty in Climate Change flood zones for three cases with differing water flood levels at 1m, 2m and 3m using 3D Modeling. This was chosen in response to the pressing issue of uncertainty within Climate Change.
II. MATERIAL AND METHOD
This technique of visualization is comprehensive enough that the local authorities and people can understand it and see what will happen when the sea level reaches the respective levels. Although there are some uncertainties in the data and in the techniques used, it is obvious enough to encourage authorities and residents to take preventative action before the damage happens as indicated in the map
The models show what kind of flood rise can be expected and what possible implications it may have. The models all clearly show what can be anticipated in a certain area of Gippsland at a Sea level rise of 1, 2 and 3 meters. These visualizations are important for the community of Gippsland as well as any local authorities and policy makers as they graphically show potential scenarios. This means that the models can be used as a way of implementing any preventative measures such as sand barriers or retaining walls. Another possibility would be to raise the level of the ground in the flood prone areas.V. CONCLUSION
The Gippsland coast is rich and diverse in natural and cultural values. The coast also supports settlements and townships that vary considerably in the size and distribution along the coast. Physical assets associated with these built up areas range from isolated boat ramps and jetties to valuable private properties fronting prime foreshore land.
Climate change, sea level rise and coastal subsidence all have the very real potential to significantly impact on the Gippsland coast, affecting both natural values and built infrastructure, on private and public land.
A vital component of adequate risk management involves being able to make balanced decisions regarding the most appropriate action, based on the magnitude of the risk, its consequences, the cost of taking action and the preparedness of the community to both pay for action and ‘forego private rights’. The key step towards being able to make informed and consistent decisions is for the Government to provide clear policy direction regarding anticipated climate change and sea level rise impacts through proclaiming a statutory sea level rise and/or erosion setback, depicted as an overlay or development control in municipal planning schemes. Local Government will therefore need considerable support from State and Commonwealth Government to enable adequate planning and risk management tools be incorporated into decision making frameworks.